00.HIGH ALT. BALLOON
A balloon is a bag filled with heated air or a light gas so that it rises and floats in the air. A balloon rises because the heated air or gas inside is less dense than the surrounding air. There are hot-air balloons and gas balloons. Hot-air balloons are mainly use for sporting and they rise because the air inside the balloon is warmer and lighter than the surrounding air. Charles’ Law explains how this is possible. It states that the volume of a gas increases as its temperature increases and if its pressure stays the same. Gas balloons are use for sport ballooning, scientific research, and many other purposes. These balloons may be filled with hydrogen, helium, or natural gas. The four most important kinds of gas balloons are the sport balloons, expan- dable balloons, super pressure balloons, and the zero-pressure balloon. The last three are used for scientific purposes. High altitude balloons are unmanned balloons, usually filled with helium or hydrogen that are released into the stratosphere , generally reaching between 18,000 – 36,500m. The most common type of high altitude balloons are weather balloons , other purposes may involve scientific groups and universities for conducting experiments in the upper atmosphere, and modern balloons generally contain electronic equipment such as radio transmitters, cameras, and sometimes satellite navigation systems, such as GPS receivers.
Skyhook balloons were balloons developed by Otto C. Winzen and used by the United States Navy Office of Naval Research in the late 1940s and in the 1950s for atmospheric research, especially for constant-level meteorological observations at very high altitudes. Instruments like the Cherenkov detector were first used on skyhook balloons. In the late 1940s, Project Skyhook balloons provided a stable vehicle for long duration observations at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. Balloons, long used for collecting meteorological data, now offered the opportunity of collecting highly specialized information and photographs.
Project Genetrix was a United States Air Force program which, beginning in January 1956, sent 516 surveillance balloons over Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union in order to take photographs and collect intelligence. Authorized by President Eisenhower on December 27 1955, Genetrix was the first espionage use of these balloons that had been tested in previous projects. The balloons were used to monitor the Soviet Union for such things as nuclear tests.
03.PROJECT MOBY DICK
Project Moby Dick was a Cold War operation by the U.S. Military in which large balloons floated cameras over the Soviet Union . The spy balloons would photograph sensitive Soviet sites and hang in the air until a crew flying the C-119 Flying Boxcar came by to collect them. The project caused a row between the U.S. and Soviet forces when the Soviets discovered what they (accurately) believed to be the remnants of a U.S. spy camera in February 1952. Other reconnaissance balloon projects from the era included Project Mogul or Project Grandson.
The balloon was launched by dynamic method assisted by launch vehicle at 15:15 utc on September 28th after a lot of delays and last minute aborts. After a nominal ascent phase the balloon reached float altitude of 122.700 ft at 17:37 utc and started a drift due the southwest. After near 27 hours of flight was sent the cutdown command and the balloon was terminated at 18:24 utc on September 29th when flight over the SW corner of Arizona state. The landing was very good because BLAST managed to land squarely on its crushpads, and the only real damage from landing was one bent leg strut. Another minor damage was at chute shock when the pivot fell into the sun shields and sheared a cable or two and the inner frame got jossled for not being locked.
Payload Mass ~1.5 kg Balloon KCI 1200 Totex Sounding Balloon Balloon Lift ~4.2 kg Gross, ~3 kg Net; with payload resulting in Free Lift of >1.4 kg Helium Volume ~4.06 m3 Flight Trajectory. The project launched a payload with GPS, camera, sensors and communications to an altitude of 30km. I obtained most parts ready years ago, but only recently had time to finish it. The launch was very successful. Things to improve for next one: reflash SiRF III chip so that it works at an altitude over 24km, use yagi antenna instead of omni-directional antenna, improve parachute system. Contrary to this flight, parachute worked well in Flight 1. Impact speed was 27km/h and a witness described the landing being smooth.
Edge of Space Sciences (EOSS) is a Denver, Colorado based non-profit organization that promotes science and education by exploring frontiers in amateur radio and high altitude balloons. Since its first flight in 1990, EOSS has grown its volunteer membership’s numbers and skills over the course of more than 100 launches, ascents into the stratosphere and payload recoveries. In the picture, a sequence of the EOSS 30 deintegration.
Cambridge University Spaceflight is a student-run society founded in the summer of 2006. The team is now around 10 members strong, composed of undergraduates from various disciplines. We believe that just being interested in space as students is not enough, so we are actively joining the new-space generation by designing and launching our own systems.
The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) (established in 1961, formerly known as the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF)) is a NASA facility responsible for providing launch, tracking and control, airspace coordination, telemetry and command systems, and recovery services for unmanned, high altitude balloons. Customers of the CSBF include NASA centers, Universities, and scientific groups from all over the world.
09.SPIRIT OF KNOXVILLE
The Spirit of Knoxville is a high altitude balloon project run by amateur scientists and University of Tennessee students, with the ultimate goal of successfully sending an unmanned balloon across the Atlantic Ocean.
UNMANNED HIGH ALTITUDE BALLOON FLIGHTS