037.opaque greenhouses

3.4.4. Opaque Greenhouses
Opaque Greenhouses would be built using concrete shell technology with a non-reusable inflatable form that would contain the inner pressure. The concrete shell would support the gravity loads of the concrete and the 30cm regolith above it for radiation protection. This technology would allow large span structures, very appropriate for the greenhouses.

Geometry of the building would be shaped using parabolic surfaces that would allow very thin concrete shells as Earth based architecture have demonstrated with very fine examples in the work of Felix Candela, Eduardo Torroja, Pier Luigi Nervi and many others.

Access from the net of pedestrian corridors would be placed in the underground level and plantations would be organized in the upper floor and mezzanine. In the underground water would be also recovered from the plants and initial storage of the vegetables produced. Wheeled access to the main wheeled ring would be provided in order to distribute the production to the other areas.

036.transparent greenhouses

3.4.3. Transparent Greenhouses
Transparent greenhouses are conceived as large span domes with a primary and secondary ring structure with steel profiles and transparent glass between these secondary structures. They would allocate different plantation to provide the food to the inhabitants of the settlement, but also the water and the oxygen in order to make the system a closed loop with a high regenerative level.

Access from the net of pedestrian corridors would be placed in the underground level and plantations would be organized in the upper floor showing up in the surface. In the underground water would be also recovered from the plants and initial storage of the vegetables produced. Wheeled access to the main wheeled ring would be provided in order to distribute the production to the other areas.


035.common spaces, labs and medical

3.4.2. Common Spaces, Labs and Medical
Common space, laboratories and medical facilities will be integrated in a multipurpose steel technology building.

In this building the inner pressure is kept by a steel plate surface built with steel plates of about 90cm wide attached together by continuous welding. These plates would work also as outer structure to protect against sand storms. In the interior, gel bags would protect from radiation and they would be covered with an interior vegetal revetment that would cover big part of the walls and provide a friendlier environment. The presence of plants everywhere in the settlement was already a concept implemented in previous studies undertook by 4Frontiers Corp and Laguarda Architects Inc. in Gen1.0. This is also very important in Gen 1.5 development in order to provide elements that help to the psychological wellness of the community. Plants are providing friendlier environment when you are on Earth, but in Mars they even have more special means as they are the base of the sustainment of life in such a harsh environment: they are the base of the regenerative closed loop needed.

Interior slab structures in steel profiles and plates would also stand on the external steel walls and on interior steel columns that would also provide natural light to all the floors by having mirrors inside and holes on their surface and thus providing each level with a very special zenithal light.

The buildings would have 15 meters diameter and 10 meters height with two floors of multiple functions. The ground level would allocate some laboratories and a medical room together with some storage area. The upper floor would house the kitchen, a hall and living area, some laboratories and a 25 people auditorium. There would be two of these common area buildings with some differences in their layout. One of them would allocate a bigger kitchen and dining room to be the main place where the 21 people of Gen 1.5 meet to have meals together, as this is a very important activity for the wellness of the community. The second common area would also have a small kitchen to serve as a closer facility to the nearby private building.

Laboratories will be closed behind glazed walls and opaque fiber glass panels. Other areas such as the auditorium will be able to be closed by using curtains.  Height between floors is intentionally high, about 4 meters and spatial connections between the two floors are provided by having “holes” in the floors. The basement level would be dedicated to other uses such as installations machinery and storage.
The entrance level of the common area buildings is placed in the first underground level in order to give access to the net of pedestrian and wheeled corridors that connect the whole settlement. Three exits are provided from this level to the corridor net while egress exit from the upper level is provided through two staircases placed inside or besides the skylight cylinders.


034.private accommodation

3.4.1. Private Accommodation
Private Accommodation assumes a construction type of manufactured fiber glass cylindrical vessels. The configuration takes inspiration from the grain silos but special windows going out of the façade will provide a special configuration and image to the building.

During production, a set of steel connections will be left in place in order to provide connecting points to interior structures and windows. Interior structure for horizontal floors would be attached through these connections to an external steel structure that would bring the loads down to the ground through foundations. This exterior main structure would have a secondary structure to carry gel bags for radiation protection and external revetment for sand storms protection. Windows would be attached both on the secondary structure and to the fiber glass steel connections.

There would be two sizes of fiber-glass vessels. One would be 12 meters diameter and 12 meters height. It would fit three storeys of private rooms with 3 rooms in each floor. An underground storey would allocate storage areas and other functions. Two staircases would provide emergency egress to the underground floor and exit from the building. Please refer to 4Frontiers Corp. for further details on this building type.

Another vessel would have 8 meters diameter and 15 meters height. I would also fit three storeys of private rooms with a single room in each floor, and a double room with mezzanine in the third floor. An underground floor would also allocate storage areas and other functions. One staircase would provide emergency egress to the underground level while a bridge on the second floor would connect to the neighbor private accommodation building in order to have a closed egress loop in an emergency situation.

Each floor has a single apartment with an entrance area with vacuum cleaner and storage. Each apartment would have a private bathroom area and living area. Bed would be a mechanism deployed from the wall and wheeled cupboards would move around to provide a more private bedroom if needed.


033.building description

3.4. Building Description
Considering all environmental challenges, the functional requirement and the technologies discussed a set of initial buildings is proposed for Gen 1.5. This list is not extensive and is also driven by aesthetical concepts when considering the way the light goes into the building, the way the inhabitant perceives the space he is living in and the way he will see his town when approaching with the rover.

The general idea has been to create a system of objects very different between them, that could be an example of each of the technologies chosen and with a strong image that would make it different from its neighbor. They can be seen as archetypes, a series of „pure” shapes that emerge in the Martian surface such as very primitive constructions, closer to a prehistoric era.

It is also decided in this way due to the fact that in the beggining it will probably be more appropiate to have smaller buildings than larger ones. Each of the buildings is then understood as a small entity autonomously driven and connected with its neighbors through underground connections.

When the system will grow into a Gen II settlement, this structure might be changing: more complex and bigger buildings will appear and even replace the old small pioneers that set the foot on Mars. Then, the buildings will grow but still they will be driven by the ring structure that might be able to allocate other structures.

The present document has not arrived that far. A sample of buildings is set up for Gen 1.5 with concrete functions, construction systems and geometrical definition but not for Gen II.  In any case, the urban structure in the  Gen II chapter  already shows bigger and more complex architecture structures. This is however a task for a further development.


032.concrete shells

3.3.7. Concrete Shells
Concrete can be manufactured out of Martian regolith and water. It does need however need something acting as a form and inflatable structures could provide it thus allowing big shells with very large spans.

· Good performance both as compressed (concrete) and tensed (inflatable).
· Continuous surface without joins.
· No need for outer protection to abrasion.
· Inflatable structure will require manufacturing in Earth and therefore small amounts of pressurized spaces will be able to use this system. However unpressurized spaces using this technology will be largely available if the inflatable form can be reused several times.
· Still need for protection for radiation (50cm regolith).


031.steel profiles and e glass

3.3.6. Steel profiles and E Glass
Steel plates can also form profiles that can be filled in with E Glass windows in order to get transparent structures needed for the greenhouses.

· Good performance both as compressed (gravity) and tensed (inner pressure).
· Easy methods for welding testing.
· No need for outer protection to abrasion..
· Large lengths of continuous welding.


030.fiber glass vessel

3.3.5. Fiber glass vessel
Fiber glass can be winded around a cylinder using pressure and resins to manufacture vessels of different diameters depending on the manufacture spaces size.

· Good performance as tensed due to inner pressure.
· Reduced weight that simplifies construction.
· Joints and holes have to be previewed and need steel connections.
· Depending on size, main structure will be required in order to stand compression forces due to the weight.
· Low performance in front to abrasion. Will need protection (steel plates or sand projection)
· Need for radiation protection.


029.steel plate construction

3.3.4. Steel plate construction
Steel can provide a construction system that both stand the weights of materials due to Mars gravity and the tension due to the interior pressure in conditioned spaces. Steel will be manufactured in the shape of plates and small profiles. By continuous welding small plates of around 30cm together, bigger plates of around 90cm can be manufactured on conditioned spaces and afterwards brought to the construction site where they will be finally welded to achieve bigger surfaces.

· Good performance both as compressed (gravity) and tensed (inner pressure).
· Easy methods for welding testing.
· No need for outer protection to abrasion.
· All shapes available.
· Large lengths of continuous welding.
· Still need for radiation protection.


028.rigid vessels

3.3.3. Rigid vessels
Rigid vessels built with light materials such as aluminum are the most common technology at the moment for space constructions. It’s a proven technology although its manufacturing might be difficult in Mars. However, it can be brought from Earth in small amounts specially to set up the first conditioned spaces.
· Proven technology with better shielding against radiation and micrometeoroids.
· Fully tested on Earth.
· Difficult to manufacture in Mars, would require expensive transport from Earth.
· Lower ratio volume/mass and thus larger launching cost.
· Smaller diameters and volumes due to launching fairing capabilities.


027.inflatable structures and vessels

3.3.2. Inflatable structures and vessels
Inflatable structures are very attractive but it is still a non proved technology and it might be difficult to manufacture it in Mars facilities. It is however a good option to bring in small amounts from Earth.
· Offer large in-use volume with big launch weight savings, lower packaging volume.
· Offer good ruggedness.
· Easily deploys curved surfaces (optimal for interior pressure requirements).
· Non proven technology
· Difficult to manufacture in Mars, would require expensive transport from Earth.
· Difficult integration of windows and hatches.
· Difficult protection against radiation and micrometeoroid impacts.


026.masonry structures

3.3.1. Masonry structures
Consisting in arches or vaults structures built from bricks manufactured using regolith.
· Easily available, simple to produce and extremely durable.
· Easy building operations in site with techniques requiring no support.
· Difficult to achieve big spans without support.
· No tensile strength capacity. Need for interior tensile structure or 10m regolith covering to balance interior pressure.
· Problems of sealing joints between bricks to avoid decompression.


025.building technologies

3.3. Building Technologies
Considering these environmental challenges and the ISRU available on Mars following 4Frontiers Corp. guidelines, some technologies are considered to meet the requirements of a human inhabited set of buildings. 4Frontiers Corp. strongly recommended maximizing the use of different technologies in order to have a wide range of options in case any of them is considered ineffective once deploying the settlement.

To evaluate these technologies it is necessary to consider:
· Maximizing the in situ resource utilization due to the extreme cost of importing materials from Earth. This provides a set of materials such as: bricks and concrete from the Martian regolith, fiber glass and steel.
· The size of the facilities where materials will be manufactured into building elements such as steel plates, steel profiles…
· The building operations in the construction site.

024.urban fabric

3.2. Urban Fabric
To define the composition of the urban fabric it’s been considered near term building technologies and the requirements on both connection (to provide loop egress) and separation between buildings (to avoid collapse of neighbor structures in case of an accident). It is decided to fill the inner parts of the array with a set of independent buildings of small-medium size, connected together both in the underground floor and (when needed) one floor above the surface.

· Independent buildings from the circular axes provide more freedom both in shape and size.
· Large ranges of technologies available as buildings are independent one of the other.
· Separation between building up to 5 meters to allow reparation and regeneration.
· Eclectic look.
· Connections between buildings are extensive.


Some requirements will anyway drive the position of the buildings in the ring’s interior:
· Illumination of the buildings, especially transparent greenhouses (shade-light).
· Proximity between Private buildings and Common areas.
· Industrial areas separated from Accommodation areas.
· Manufacturing areas connected with wheeled transportation routes.
· Private accommodation buildings close to each other to provide multiple egress exits through the underground level and upper level connections.

All the buildings will have underground floors with connection to other buildings. These underground areas will have round shapes many times due to the internal pressure and will be dedicated to storage, installations machinery and other uses.

The habitable areas of the buildings will be situated on the above ground levels but some of them, such as the Common Areas can have multiple storey connected through empty spaces (such the structure of a mall) and in this case the underground level would also be used as such using a courtyard to illuminate it and as a connection to the ring and the neighbor buildings.

023.array structure

3.1.2. Array structure
An array structure organizes the urban growth in between the spaces left by the crossing of two sets of axes (normally perpendicular).
· Maximal densification.
· Allows multiple routes from one point to the other.
· Wheeled access for regeneration to the inner fabric depends on both axes being accessible by building machinery.
· Increments the “corridor” surface.


An array structure is decided but instead of a set of perpendicular axes crossing between them and providing squared spaces for the urban fabric to be developed, a set of circular wheeled routes define the inner spaces. The circular rings are set up in rows, establishing a sort of circular array of roads.

In order to allow fast transportation between one side to the other of the Gen II, linear axes cross the circular array.

This first order of rings is established on a 100m basis. They will work in different levels. For Gen 1.5, just one or two rings will be necessary to allocate the buildings needed; the ring then will work on the ground level, providing surface transportation and access between the buildings.  Further on when more rings are incorporated to the system, an underground level ring system will provide small wheeled transportation by electrical car, while the ground level will remain as heavy traffic transportation system.

When Gen II is growing to a larger city, bigger rings will circumvallate the existing rings, establishing faster connections between different parts of the community. These new set of rings will have larger traffic capabilities, allowing bigger number of electrical cars in the underground level and will provide other transportation systems such as elevated tramway on the surface level. These new rings will come together will crossing axes that will allow direct connection by electrical car.

In this scheme the urban fabric is established almost randomly inside the circular pattern. The ring transportation system becomes the larger order of the city. This is due to the fact that several construction systems and building shapes need to be deployed as it is difficult to asset which one will be the most effective. Therefore, a neutral structure that allows any type of building in its interior is a more flexible choice.


022.linear structure

3.1.1. Linear structure
A linear structure organizes the urban growth around on a hierarchical main axe around which the urban fabric is settled.
· Allows access to every building from the interior and the exterior.
· Minimizes length of the connecting corridors.
· Large extension.
· As it continues growing makes impossible shortcuts.


021.urban pattern

3.1. Urban Pattern
A continuous growing community in Mars Gen 1.5 into a Gen II requires definition in the growing pattern in order to organize wheeled access to every area, pedestrian access to the buildings, major transportation systems for further growing, urban fabric organization… Although Gen 1.5 will be a small part of the overall development of Gen II, strategies should be implemented since the beginning to achieve a growing organized community.

Two urban structures for a growing urban pattern were identified.

019.radiation vs. illumination/views

2.4.4. Radiation vs. Illumination/Views
· Three major sources of radiation: Solar Wind coming from the Sun’s direction, Cosmic Rays coming from all directions, Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejection coming from the Sun in punctual storms.
· Protection to Solar Wind and Cosmic Rays can be achieved by a 30cm thickness of Martian regolith; water tanks or materials with large amounts of hydrogen.
· Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections will need specific shelters.
· Illumination and views can be achieved with special windows with 7cm water thickness, by creating water mirror surfaces that reflect light or by assuming a future development of radiation shielded plastics.


018.abrasion vs. illumination/views

2.4.3. Abrasion vs. Illumination/Views
· Wind storms are common and carry Martian dust at speeds up to 100km/h.
· Protection to abrasion is to be considered avoiding “soft” materials on the external layers.
· Windows should have mobile protections in order to open or close them when necessary.