2.4.4. Radiation vs. Illumination/Views
· Three major sources of radiation: Solar Wind coming from the Sun’s direction, Cosmic Rays coming from all directions, Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejection coming from the Sun in punctual storms.
· Protection to Solar Wind and Cosmic Rays can be achieved by a 30cm thickness of Martian regolith; water tanks or materials with large amounts of hydrogen.
· Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections will need specific shelters.
· Illumination and views can be achieved with special windows with 7cm water thickness, by creating water mirror surfaces that reflect light or by assuming a future development of radiation shielded plastics.
2.4.3. Abrasion vs. Illumination/Views
· Wind storms are common and carry Martian dust at speeds up to 100km/h.
· Protection to abrasion is to be considered avoiding “soft” materials on the external layers.
· Windows should have mobile protections in order to open or close them when necessary.
· Average temperature on the Martian surface is -63oC.
· Thermal isolation can be achieved with an air layer between the external protection and the inner walls.
2.4.1. Gravity vs. Indoor Pressure
· Gravity is about 38% of Earth’s.
· Atmospheric pressure is very low while indoor areas will be pressurized at 60kPa, meaning a high pressure difference between conditioned indoors and outdoors.
· The major structural problem for a conditioned space on Mars is holding the inside pressure, even though the buildings should also stand on without inside pressure during their construction or in case of an accidental loss of pressure.
· The best shapes to stand inside pressure are cylindrical and spherical as they homogenously distribute pressure on their perimeter.
2.4. Environmental Requirements
Mars has specific environmental conditions that implies a higher complexity when developing built structures to be human inhabited.
2.3.3. Urban Regeneration
· As Gen 1.5 grows into Gen II, regeneration of the urban fabric will be required. Gen II will already allow bigger and more efficient buildings. The buildings will permanently be replaced and therefore wheeled access to each building has to be provided in order to let cranes and trucks in to work on them.
2.3.2. Egress Loop
· Mars conditioned areas will need more than one exit to other conditioned areas in order to provide emergency egress into safe areas in case of depressurization or accident in one segment.
· Buildings will be connected together by pressurized corridors that will provide access from one to the next and will lock the entrances in case of accident, depressurization… in the neighbor building.
· Gen 1.5 is a small settlement with all the residential areas, industrial, energy and mining areas very close to each other to minimize. Gen II will have larger areas dedicated to residential, industrial, energy producing and mining.
· As Gen 1.5 is continuously growing into Gen II dedicated areas will have to be defined not to have mixes between residential and industrial uses.
2.3. Urban Requirements
This continous growing from a small community with introduces some challenges in the design of the urban fabric.
2.2. Gen II requirements. Space Matrix.
The following table summarizes the requirements for the Gen II settlement.
2.1. Gen 1.5 requirements. Space Matrix.
The following table summarizes the requirements for the Gen 1.5 settlement.
2. Mission Planning Requirements
The goal of the project is to design both a first and a second phase for a settlement in Mars. Gen 1.5 is the first phase and „includes the basic infrastructure to keep the initial settlers alive, and allow future population growth and support early economic development”. Gen 1.5 will accommodate about 21 settlers, assuming there are no children nor elderly in the population. Gen II is a second phase of the growing settlement with a population around 2000 settlers 15 years after Gen 1.5 is completed. The settlement will continously growing to achieve this final phase.