There are 2 kinds of flying devices:

LIGHTER than air: they use the ARCHIMEDES Principle as they are full of a gas lighter than air (Hidrogen, Helium, hot air).
HEAVIER than air: they use the sustentation created in a wing by the Venturi effect and the Bernouilli theorem.
The DIRIGIBLE is a lighter than air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air using rudders and proppellers. A propulsed balloon.

+ Static Lift through Gas. No need for engine power. Minimum energy consumption. High safety.

- Necessary Large Size. Large drag coefficient. Reduced Speed.



1784: J.P.Blanchard, First hand propulsion alift
1852: H.Giffard, First engine powered airship
1870: Franco-German War, big push to airship
1883: G.Tissandier, First electrical engine alift
1900: F.von Zepplein: First Zeppelin LZ1
1901: A.Santos-Dumont, Deutsch Prize
1909: E.Forlanini, First Forlanini airship
1914: I World War, Bombing&Reconnaissance
1923: Los Angeles, First ship with Helium
1928: Graf Zeppelin, Largest airship at the time
1937: Hindenburg, Crash in New Jersey
1939: II World War, Convoy&Anti-submarine
Present: Advertising, Sightseeing, Surveillance
Access to Remote Locations, Tourism.


1.CYCLORANE: hybrid airship/ helicopter with longitudinal rotation.
2.CL160 CARGOLIFTER: heavy lift semi-rigid
3.HAA by Lockheed Martin: high altitude airship for USA Department of Defense (DOD).
4.High Altitude Long Endurance by Lindstrand Technologies: high altitude airship for comnunications in EU.
5.AEROSPHERE by Techsphere: a high altitude spherical blimp. Up to 6000m.
6.JP Aerospace: orbital airship for transportation to LEO.
7.P-791 by Lockheed Martin: an hybrid aerostatic/aerodyinamic.
8.Dynalifter byOhioAirships: heavy lift hybrid
9.21st CENTURY AIRSHIPS Inc: develops a spherical airship for high altitude research and surveillance.
10.Au-30 by AUGUR-RosAerosystems: a heavy lift cargo model and high altitude airship.
11.STRATOCRUISER by Tino Schaedler
& Michael J.Bro: propose a flying spa.
12.AEROSCRAFT by Worldwide Aeros Corporation: an hybrid airship-aeroplane. 64X36X17m with a 500m2 cabin inside the volume. 220 km/h max speed. 3,6km max altitude. ML866 Developed through DARPA’s Lift Walrus program of DOD. COSH system to dynamic control of buoyancy.
13.MANNED CLOUD by Massaud Studio & Onera: a 210x82x52m 20 rooms airship hotel with capacity for 40 guests and 15 staff. 170 km/h max speed and 130 km/h average. Air range 5000 km / 3 days. No investors yet.


FLEXIBLE (BLIMPS): require internal pressure to maintain their shape.
SEMIRIGID: Like blimps need internal pressure but have articulated keel frames to allow lower envelope pressures.
RIGID: have rigid frames containing multiple, non-pressurized gas cells to provide lift. Do not depend on internal pressure to maintain their shape. Virtually of any size.

Envelope Gas:
HELIUM: Best. Inert & not flammable. Buoyancy controlled with air ballonettes.
HOT AIR: Lower altitudes. Also used in solar thermal balloons.
HYDROGEN: Flammable. Not used.
VACUUM: vacuum is lighter than air…

SKIN: multilayer sandwich. Each layer has its function: sealing, waterproof, tensile structure, photoelectic power generation…
STRUCTURE: aluminium, composites.

PRESSURIZATION: in high altitu- de flights. Air pumped into cabin regulating in- ternal pressure oxygen and temperature levels.
POSITION: cabin can be hanging below envelope, internal or at the front of the envelope if structurally balanced.

Propulsion& Energy:
ENGINES: electrial, combustion engines.
POWER: photoelectrical, generator.


Lift Gas: Helium, inert and non-flammable
Skin Materials: low flamable
Natural Buoyancy designs: Zero Catastrophic Failure Mode. Inner pressure not much bigger than outer, no explosions.
Bad Weather: better avoid it, but bigger mass dampens the turbulence’s effects.
Poor Lightning Target: constructed in composite materials and built-in protection devices against it.


1.Lindstrand Technologies (UK): selected to build HALE for ESA.
2.Airship Industries (UK): builds blimps Skyship 600 for advertising and surveillance.
3.Shanghai Vantage Airship Manufac- ture Co. (China): Surveillance airship CA-150.
4.Zeppelin Luftschifftechnik GmbH (Germany): produces Zeppelin NT, a semi-rigid airship for advertising and observation.
5.American Blimp Co. (USA): MZ-3A for training & research.
6.Boeing Industries (USA): builds a heavy air-lift the JHL-40 Airhook
7.Cameron Balloons (UK): builds hot-air airships for advertising and observation.

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